Rapid population growth influences our environment causes poverty, food shortage and multiple health problems and thereby brings changes in society. Poverty is related with health and the size of the family also. The potentials for development always far exceed the initiative of society to exploit them. Society is the net-work of social relationship. It is a concept distinct from evolution, process and development which are regarded as key concepts in the literature of social change. Historical , as developed by Marx and Engels, is one of the more prominent theories that gives priority to economic processes, but it is not the only one.
The western civilization is now on its decline which is unavoidable. As an agent of war, it brought about the most appalling annihilation of people in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Growth and development usually go together, but they are different phenomena subject to different laws. The most primitive tribes have been those who were the most isolated like the polar Eskimos or the Aranda of Central Australia. The ancient Greeks made great contributions to art and learning but contributed little to technology. Towns like Kanpur, Jamshedpur and Ahmadabad in India owe their birth to the factories established there.
Thinkers like Mahatma Gandhi and Aurobindo Ghose have warned mankind against moral degeneration. In theory, its institutional forms are distinct from those of the state, family, and market, though in practice, the boundaries between state, civil society, family, and market are often complex, blurred and negotiated. Mechanisms of accumulation, selection, and differentiation Some evolutionary theories stress the essentially cumulative nature of human knowledge. In fact, the qualities of decline and progress cannot be derived scientifically that is, from empirical observations alone but are instead identified by normative evaluations and value judgments. Generally, changes in physical environment force migration of people in large numbers and this brings major changes in social life and cultural values also.
Male-female relations got changed when women also started working in factories, offices and shops. As it is consciously and deliberately made, there is every possibility to have control on the speed and direction of change. The modern age is the age of Kaliyug wherein man is deceitful, treacherous, false, dishonest, selfish and consequently unhappy. The joint family system suffered a decline and the nucleus family came to be the basic social unit. Number of population in the productive age group deeply influences the rate and speed of social change. The social structure of a society is closely related with the changes in the size, composition and distribution of population.
The changes from homogeneity to heterogeneity is multitudinously exemplified; from the simple tribe, to the civilized nation full of structural and functional unlikeness in all parts. Progress means change for the better, and hence implies a value judgment. It is the change in these relationships which alone we shall regard as social change. The cause of social change is the Psychology of man himself. In a word it is difficult to find clear and definite standards that all people would accept and to formulate definite conceptions of progress which may apply to all time and to all cultures. Where the aspiration and action of the leader do not reflect the will of the collective, it is ignored or rejected. This consequently led to resistance and social change which involved Catholic revolutionaries playing a part in overthrowing the oppressive Somoza regime in Nicaragua in 1979.
The society may be primitive or modern, rural or urban, simple or complex, agrarian or industrial, it is constantly undergoing change. Societies that adopted these innovations grew in size and became more powerful. To satisfy our desire for change and our changing needs social change becomes a necessity. Society in the stage of industrialism is marked by greater differentiation and integration of its parts. Thus social change is different from individual change. The social conditions deteriorate the size of families shrink and it affects the social relations. Where a particular religion is adopted as the state religion, it also usually acts to maintain the status quo in society.
Below are some of the likely causes. Some of these factors are shown in the following diagram. Various monkeys gradually picked up this cultural innovation before the eyes of the scientists. His world , however, has been attacked for empirical reasons and for its failure to account for the collapse of Soviet regimes and their subsequent movement toward capitalism and. The human constitution makes possible changes that are not biologically that is to say, genetically determined. For example, the invention of personal computers was more important than, say, patch dolls.
This is due to mutual interdependence of social phenomenon. Changes in demographic structure, which may be caused by changes in mortality rates, will produce changes in the ratio of breadwinners to dependents. Change in anything or any object or in a situation takes place through time. Marx was also influenced by the countercurrent of , which was opposed to the idea of progress. The reason is that social phenomena are mutually interdependent. The main cause of social change is the cultural factor. The birth of the institutions of marriage and family took place under the influence of the means of production of material means of livelihood.
Social change is also caused by tension and conflict. The rate and extent of development is determined by prevalent social attitudes, which control the flow of social energies. Years ago, when checking out at a grocery store, the cashier would ask, 'Paper or plastic? Later sailing vessels shifted the centre to the fringes of the Mediterranean Sea and still later to the north- west coast of Europe. People whether accept change or not depends upon their attitudes and values which are the products of the culture. Nothing could prevent the coming of communism where all men would share alike and all would be content. In brief, Protestanism provided an element in the rationalisation an important requirement of capitalism of Western society.