Control Group The control for this experiment is the third cup which is just water, which will do nothing. You should see tiny bubbles coming out of the leaf disks. This represents the essence of converting light energy to chemical energy. Record the number of floating disks every minute, until all the disks are floating. The rate of photosynthesis was measured every five min under light colors of white, green, red, blue and yellow under a light intensity of 2000 lux. Knowing that spinach is a plant that grows and thrives in warmer weather, my group hypothesized that the colder temperatures would slow the rate of photosynthesis, because of the slowing of molecular movements and reactants.
The Robert Hill experiment showed us that chloroplasts in water can operate in the presence of light and a electron acceptor to release oxygen, which lead to many implications. Because they interact with light to absorb only certain wavelengths, pigments are useful to plants and other autotrophs --organisms which make their own food using photosynthesis. Then explain the objectives of the experiment. The raw materials are carbon dioxide and water; the energy source is sunlight; and the end-products are oxygen and energy rich carbohydrates, for example sucrose, glucose and starch. When you apply a gentle vacuum to the leaf disks in solution, this air is forced out and replaced with solution, causing the leaves to sink. Prepare 300 mL of 0.
These parts are embedded in the thylakoid membranes of a chloroplast. This could have affected our total data for the non Sodium Bicarbonate cup, which based on our results I believe it did just that. Hypothesis: The hypothesis of the collected group is that the cup with the Sodium Bicarbonate will produce more leafs that raise to the surface as this cup will have more carbon dioxide resulting in more photosynthesis. In general, filtered light reduced the rate of photosynthesis because the chlorophyll didn't receive all the different colors of the spectrum it desired as it did in white light to absorb. You don't have to eat your greens - you can bring them into the lab and use them for investigating photosynthesis instead. Constants Constants: Water, cups, spinach leafs, Baking Soda, light source, etc Number of Trails This experiment was only preformed with a single trail, implicating a greater region of error. Lab 4: Photosynthesis and Chromatography of Spinach Leaves Discussion: The chromatography of the spinach leaves was taken to establish what pigments were present in the chloroplasts of the leaves.
Chlorophyll, which is the green pigment of leaves, absorbs light energy that excites electrons to a higher energy level. Sometimes the end product of photosynthesis is glucose C6H12O6. Green food coloring was added to the 500 mL Beaker to test the effects of photosynthesis in green light. The control in this experiment was the same spinach leaves used. You may have to repeat this procedure two to three times in order to get the disks to sink. Accumulation of O 2 on the disks causes them to float. However, the plant cells have a different type of center that produces energy- chloroplasts.
So when the leafs go through photosynthesis then the produced oxygen will make the leafs float to the surface, meaning the leafs are going through photosynthesis. This would require it to undergo photosynthesis more times in order for its to create more glucose to store. Source Biology-Photosynthesis Lab Report 1. Modern breeding techniques have reduced the calcium oxalate levels, which in older varieties caused a bitter-tasting leaf. The increased number of accessory pigments allows for a wider range of light to be taken in and converted into energy excitation of electrons on the chlorophyll for the photosynthetic process.
Georgia Perimeter College Biology 1402: Select Labs From Laboratory Manual to accompany Biology, Tenth Edition. Because leaves are very rich in chloroplasts containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis photosynthesis occurs mainly on leaves , they reflect a lot of green light wavelengths, which our eyes interpret as the colour green. In the first investigation, the disks placed in the bicarbonate solution had a considerably higher rate of photosynthesis than those placed solely in water, showing carbon dioxide's positive effects. The plant then uses the glucose to produce energy which the plant needs to sustain life. How light intensity effects the Rate of photo synthesis. Purpose: To measure the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis in the leaf cells. The pigments dissolved in the solvent also were carried up the paper and were separated because they do not all dissolve equally into the solvent, less soluble pigments appear lower on the paper.
This was shown when the paper chromatography was done, the beet leaf trials had many different coloured pigments over the paper, vs the spinach leaf only a green pigment which represented that only chlorophyll was present. Pour the disks and the solution from the syringe into the appropriate beaker. If all the wavelengths of visible light are absorbed the object appears black, and if they are all reflected it appears white. The rate of photosynthesis was measured by the spinach disk method in which we replaced the air from the disks with sodium bicarbonate using a vacuum. Pull a small volume of bicarbonate solution soap solution from your prepared cup into one syringe and a small volume of water plus soap in the other syringe.
The second investigation demonstrated that warmer temperatures result in faster rates, thus, providing the answers that were being sought after. I think the pigments will separate in this order: Chlorophyll A, Chlorophyll B, Carotene, and Xanthophyll. This shows how plants like spinach can hold there produce oxygen in the leafs which gives them there floating properties. Introduction Photosynthesis is the ability to convert light energy into. When all the disks have floated, try putting the cup in a dark cabinet or room, or cover the cup with aluminum foil. This lab will evaluate the optimal wavelengths and degrees of intensity during photosynthesis when chloroplast is exposed to light.
Pigments within chloroplasts, primarily chlorophyll, absorb the incoming solar energy which excites their electrons Hoober 1984. Curriculum Links CfE Scottish Highers Unit 3 Sustainability and Interdependence. Jonsdottir Partner: Emily Helena Kraus Date: 26. Notice any tiny bubbles forming around the edges and bottoms of the disks. Below is what I need to base my report on. The lipid soluble pigments will travel up the paper until their bonds between the water are so weak that it must stop following the movement of the solvent, and get placed at a certain height above the original concentrated dot.
This results in less light during the day for the plant to undergo photosynthesis. On the other hand, we discovered that the colder the temperature is, the slower the rate of photosynthesis. For photosynthesis to take place they need water, carbon dioxide and light and chloroplasts. Problem How can you tell pigment separation by using Chromatography? They should settle to the bottom of the cup see photos below. Oxygen is the waste product that is given out via the stomata pores when they become turgid, this is during the process of respiration.