Hence, the supply curve of the firm under monopoly does not exist. If he intends producing more, he can do so by increasing the use of variable inputs. In perfect competition, the price p c , equals the average cost at optimal scale. Sometimes, the price differences may be so small that consumers do not consider it worthwhile to bother about such differences. The higher the advertising elasticity, the greater the incentive for the firm to advertise its product.
Even if the entry of new firms is blocked, it is only a short-run phenomenon because the success of the cartel will lead to the entry of firms in the long run. So when such problems arise in joint profit distribution in contravention of the cartel agreement, they lead to the breakdown of the cartel. Secondly, as larger outlays are incurred on sales promotion, internal economies of advertisement appear in the form of efficient salesmen, attractive advertisements and packing, etc. Likewise, if he chooses the output level, his price is determined by the demand curve. Assumptions : The analysis of joint profit maximisation cartel is based on the following assumptions: 1. If we treat the marginal cost of the monopolist as the counterpart of the aggregate marginal cost of the competitive industry, its intersection with the market demand curve gives us the competitive market price and sales. Product cost refers to the total of fixed costs, variable costs and semi variable costs incurred during the production, distribution and selling of the product.
But under monopoly, the difference between firm and industry goes. When the demand curve for the product of a firm shifts to the right, it is the result either of inducing the same customers to buy more of the same product or new customers buying this product attracted by the advertisement. Firstly, consumers being attached to a particular brand of the product say, Brooke Bond Tea, are in the habit of buying it alone. Long Run Profit : In long run equilibrium, the monopoly may make abnormal or normal profit. There are only two firms that enter into market-sharing agreement on the basis of the quota system.
Because he can increase the sale by lowing the price. The firms can compete with one another on a non-price basis by varying the colour, design, shape, packing, etc. Such a thing will affect the smooth working of democracy. Thus the firm lowering the price will not be able to increase its demand much. This is the monopoly solution in the market-sharing cartel. We may conclude that two sets of forces operate in response to selling outlays on a product which tend to bring increasing returns upto a point, and beyond that, diminishing returns.
Such a situation is, therefore, characterised as monopolistic competition. Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. In competition, output is pressed to the point where marginal cost equals the market price. It will be pooled into a fund and distributed by the cartel board according to the agreement arrived at by the two firms at the time of the formation of the cartel. Product Cost: The most important factor affecting the price of a product is its cost. The surplus capacity is never abandoned and the result is high prices and wastes. It establishes the truth of the proposition that perfect competition and increasing returns are incompatible and proves without any shadow of doubt that falling costs ultimately lead to monopoly or monopolistic competition.
The amounts he can sell at any given price depend upon the conditions of demand for his good. So price is fixed by the monopolist at that point where his marginal costs and marginal revenue are equal to one another. It is difficult to pinpoint the number of firms in the oligopolist market. But where prices are not fixed, the entry of new competitors will raise elasticities of demand, lower prices and profits. This is because it takes long time for the members to arrive at an agreed price. But each firm will be of a smaller size than under perfect competition. Thus the chances are greater for individual firms to leave the cartel on account of personal bickering and antagonism of member firms over allotment of quotas and division of profits which are likely to affect adversely joint profit maximisation and end the cartel agreement.
In other words, he may charge different prices of the same product from different buyers. This is illustrated in Fig. Influence of Selling Costs on the Demand Curve : The purpose of selling costs is to influence the demand curve for the product of a firm or group. Equilibrium Sales and Price : Since extra sales do not add to cost, the monopolist will keep expanding sales as long as they add to revenue, provided the stocks permit. In fact, E is a measure of the effectiveness of advertising. There is no product differentiation.
Then the monopolist will get maximum profits by fixing a high price. In perfect competition, the price of a product is determined at a point at which the demand and supply curve intersect each other. For example, a firm will charge high profit if it is using expensive material for packing its product. This possibility will be explored further in the section on third degree price discrimination. Advertisement in favour of another variety of the same product say Tata tea, is meant to break their habit and dissolve the attachment of consumers to Brooke Bond. Thus, stocks permitting, the monopolist will expand sales till the marginal revenue is zero. There may be two or more large firms among a number of small firms which may enter into collusion for sharing the market at various prices.