Massive industrialization and urbanization — During this period, London became the urban centre of industrial development and huge masses of people migrated to the cities in search of jobs. We'll look at the context, content, and forms of the poems to see how they mark the beginning of the Romantic era in literature. But the speaker also imagines his remembrances of the past as a kind of light, which illuminate his soul and give him the strength to live. The Preface is a statement of Wordsworth's poetic vision and offers an explanation of the poetic process behind the poems, which fused the rusticity of the ballad form with the psychological introspection of modernity. Unless therefore we are advocates for that admiration which subsists upon ignorance, and that pleasure which arises from hearing what we do not understand, the Poet must descend from this supposed height; and, in order to excite rational sympathy, he must express himself as other men express themselves. About this Item: Macat International Limited, United Kingdom, 2018.
Readers find themselves drawn back to the essay repeatedly as they seek to untangle the ideas and contradictions within it. The thought suggested itself-- to which of us I do not recollect -- that a series of poems might be composed of two sorts. Previous ages had considered the aim of poetry to be used as a tool to change people's behaviour or as a learning mechanism. Although many of the Romantic poets that would follow Wordsworth and Coleridge would disagree with some elements of the poetic theory found in Lyrical Ballads, the collection nonetheless gave voice to the concerns at the heart of Romantic literature and introduced much of the imagery, style, and language that would become popular in the poetry of the Romantic period. Many people believe that the 'V' in our brand name stands for 'We'. I am sensible that my associations must have sometimes been particular instead of general, and that, consequently, giving to things a false importance, I may have sometimes written upon unworthy subjects; but I am less apprehensive on this account, than that my language may frequently have suffered from those arbitrary connexions of feelings and ideas with particular words and phrases, from which no man can altogether protect himself. I have also thought it expedient to restrict myself still further, having abstained from the use of many expressions, in themselves proper and beautiful, but which have been foolishly repeated by bad Poets, till such feelings of disgust are connected with them as it is scarcely possible by any art of association to overpower.
He felt that Wordsworth's conception of poetry relied too much on Hartley's theories and did not adequately explain Wordsworth's poems. Coleridge became less and less convinced of its power as an artistic tool and finally disclaimed it altogether, saying that he and Wordsworth might have subscribed to it in theory but fell far short of exploiting it in actuality. It has therefore appeared to me, that to endeavour to produce or enlarge this capability is one of the best services in which, at any period, a Writer can be engaged; but this service, excellent at all times, is especially so at the present day. This emphasis on the importance of the imagination, moreover, is one of the most common elements found in Romantic poetry. The human beings who possessed this vital knowledge would be those closest to nature — the farmers and shepherds of the countryside. Poetry is the image of man and nature. How, then, can his language differ in any material degree from that of all other men who feel vividly and see clearly? In the theory of poetry, the issue of diction tends to become primary because the feelings of the poet are most readily conceived to overflow into words, unlike into plot or characters.
From about 1750 to 1790, literature came to be dominated indirectly by Doctor Samuel Johnson. According to Wordsworth, poetry that uses this more direct and less contrived language results in the 'spontaneous overflow of powerful emotions. This mode of criticism, so destructive of all sound unadulterated judgement, is almost universal: let the Reader then abide, independently, by his own feelings, and, if he finds himself affected, let him not suffer such conjectures to interfere with his pleasure. Coleridge encouraged Wordsworth to write a preface to Lyrical Ballads. If in a poem there should be found a series of lines, or even a single line, in which the language, though naturally arranged, and according to the strict laws of metre, does not differ from that of prose, there is a numerous class of critics, who, when they stumble upon these prosaisms, as they call them, imagine that they have made a notable discovery, and exult over the Poet as over a man ignorant of his own profession. Having dwelt thus long on the subjects and aim of these Poems, I shall request the Readers permission to apprise him of a few circumstances relating to their style, in order, among other reasons, that he may not censure me for not having performed what I never attempted.
The sudden charm, which accidents of light and shade, which moon-light or sunset diffused over a known and familiar landscape, appeared to represent the practicability of combining both. John Keats and Percy Bysshe Shelley to name but two. In the 1802 preface to Lyrical Ballads, Wordsworth explained the relationship between the mind and poetry. We have no knowledge, that is, no general principles drawn from the contemplation of particular facts, but what has been built up by pleasure, and exists in us by pleasure alone. Although Nature has order but its a free, not imposing , supernaturalism, the language of man. Wordsworth: Lyrical Ballads, Macmillan Publication.
A slight incident of village life may be material for poetry, if the poet can make it meaningful. I hope therefore the reader will not censure me for attempting to state what I have proposed to myself to perform; and also as far as the limits of a preface will permit to explain some of the chief reasons which have determined me in the choice of my purpose: that at least he may be spared any unpleasant feeling of disappointment, and that I myself may be protected from one of the most dishonourable accusations which can be brought against an Author, namely, that of an indolence which prevents him from endeavouring to ascertain what is his duty, or, when his duty is ascertained, prevents him from performing it. It just rearranges materials but also shapes, orders, modifies and colours sense objects with the minds own light. The principal object, then, proposed in these Poems was to choose incidents and situations from common life, and to relate or describe them, throughout, as far as was possible in a selection of language really used by men, and, at the same time, to throw over them a certain colouring of imagination, whereby ordinary things should be presented to the mind in an unusual aspect; and, further, and above all, to make these incidents and situations interesting by tracing in them, truly though not ostentatiously, the primary laws of our nature: chiefly, as far as regards the manner in which we associate ideas in a state of excitement. Johnsons stanza would be a fair parallelism, is not to say, this is a bad kind of poetry, or, this is not poetry; but, this wants sense; it is neither interesting in itself nor can lead to anything interesting; the images neither originate in that sane state of feeling which arises out of thought, nor can excite thought or feeling in the Reader.
In fact, when Lyrical Ballads was originally published in 1798, critics were sharply divided on whether the collection was innovative and brilliant or a complete failure. So he meditates before writing. This context is helpful to keep in mind when reading Lyrical Ballads, for many of its poems portray the return to a more natural lifestyle as a remedy to the problems created by the Industrial Revolution. I can change the characters or the plot, but feelings has to be their. He disqualifies the misconception that science preceded technology and is therefore older and better than engineering by showing how some inventions predated the science that explains them. He says we should create something that would make our lives better and give us a change.
Consider, for example, these lines from Wordsworth's 'We Are Seven': 'A simple child, dear brother Jim, That lightly draws its breath, And feels its life in every limb, What should it know of death? If an Author, by any single composition, has impressed us with respect for his talents, it is useful to consider this as affording a presumption, that on other occasions where we have been displeased, he, nevertheless, may not have written ill or absurdly; and further, to give him so much credit for this one composition as may induce us to review what has displeased us, with more care than we should otherwise have bestowed upon it. A second edition was published in 1800, in which Wordsworth included additional poems and a detailing the pair's avowed poetical principles. These are the poetry of nature. Whate'er the theme, the Maiden sang As if her song could have no ending; I saw her singing at her work, And o'er the sickle bending;-- I listened, motionless and still; And, as I mounted up the hill, The music in my heart I bore, Long after it was heard no more. But it may be said by those who do not object to the general spirit of these remarks, that, as it is impossible for the Poet to produce upon all occasions language as exquisitely fitted for the passion as that which the real passion itself suggests, it is proper that he should consider himself as in the situation of a translator, who does not scruple to substitute excellencies of another kind for those which are unattainable by him; and endeavours occasionally to surpass his original, in order to make some amends for the general inferiority to which he feels that he must submit. From United Kingdom to U. Now the co-presence of something regular, something to which the mind has been accustomed in various moods and in a less excited state, cannot but have great efficacy in tempering and restraining the passion by an intertexture of ordinary feeling, and of feeling not strictly and necessarily connected with the passion.
Central to the creative process of the Romantic poets that followed him, Wordsworth's Preface to the Lyrical Ballads has been both a gift and a thorn in the side of critics for over a century. For a multitude of causes, unknown to former times, are now acting with a combined force to blunt the discriminating powers of the mind, and, unfitting it for all voluntary exertion, to reduce it to a state of almost savage torpor. The combination of feeling and meditation produces artful poetry with purpose. The invaluable works of our elder writers, I had almost said the works of Shakespeare and Milton, are driven into neglect by frantic novels, sickly and stupid German Tragedies, and deluges of idle and extravagant stories in verse. Reprint of 1957 edition, originally a thesis, University of Wales. In the 'Advertisement' included in the 1798 edition, Wordsworth explained his poetical concept: The majority of the following poems are to be considered as experiments. These, and the like, are the sensations and objects which the Poet describes, as they are the sensations of other men, and the objects which interest them.
The collection, originally published in 1798, was a direct response to the ideas and styles found in the literature written between 1660 and 1798, a period commonly referred to as the Neoclassical era. The reason that he gave was that the rustic people were close to nature and hence free from artificiality and vanity. The characteristics of the romantic poetry: the use of Nature meaning to move oneself from society, which is rigid and mechanical, toward the outside. Dust Jacket Condition: No Dust Jacket. From United Kingdom to U. Language The language, too, of these men has been adopted purified indeed from what appear to be its real defects, from all lasting and rational causes of dislike and disgust because such men hourly communicate with the best objects from which with the best part of language is originally derived; and because, from their rank in society and the sameness and narrow circle of their intercourse, being less under the influence of social variety, they convey their feelings and notions in simple and unelaborated expressions. He became a member of the so-called Godwin circle in London.