In this context, terrorism should not be equated with the legitimate struggle of peoples under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation for self-determination and national liberation. To respond to the challenges and to take advantage of the opportunities arising from globalization and interdependence with creativity and a sense of identity in order to ensure its benefits to all countries, particularly those most affected by underdevelopment and poverty, with a view to gradually reducing the abysmal gap between the developed and developing countries. The end of the Cold War left the Nonaligned Movement without its original raison d'être, and its membership became deeply divided over international disputes, strategy, and organization. Respect for the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations. The Bandung meeting has been considered as the most immediate antecedent of the founding of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries, which finally came into being six years later on a wider geographical basis when the First Summit Conference was held in Belgrade on September 1-6, 1961. Structure The Non-Aligned Movement, true to its original purposes, does not conform to a traditional leadership or organizational structure. During the early days of the Movement, its actions were a key factor in the decolonization process, which led later to the attainment of freedom and independence by many countries and peoples and to the founding of tens of new sovereign States.
All works are released in. India also is a founding member of the Group of Fifteen see Glossary , a group of developing nations established at the ninth Nonaligned Movement summit in Belgrade in 1989 to facilitate dialogue with the industrialized countries. In conclusion, The Non-Aligned Movement, faced with the goals yet to be reached and the many new challenges that are arising, is called upon to maintain a prominent and leading role in the current International relations in defense of the interests and priorities of its member states and for achievement of peace and security for mankind. The principles of nonalignment, as articulated by Nehru and his successors, were preservation of India's freedom of action internationally through refusal to align India with any bloc or alliance, particularly those led by the or the ; nonviolence and international cooperation as a means of settling international disputes. Jawaharlal Nehru was the architect of the Non-Alignment Movement.
He sees an India which is no longer dependent on any external power; the impact of colonialism is fresh in the mind. Bradnock's India's Foreign Policy since 1971. Climate change has become more intense. World is now facing new threats, even more serious than cold war. Of course since India was poor and dependent on technology and help from outside, over time, the policy did not always work well.
The speeches and writings of Jawaharlal Nehru offer considerable insight into the rationale and direction of Indian foreign policy during the Cold War period. After adopting non-alignment as the core element of its foreign policy, India became a model for other newly independent countries. Their shared program included the political decolonization of Asia and Africa. Moreover India needed more time to deliberate on her right place in all new and fast evolving world. India - Nonaligned Movement India Nonaligned Movement India played an important role in the multilateral movements of colonies and newly independent countries that developed into the Nonaligned Movement. The Movement of Non-Aligned Countries could not spare itself difficulties to act effectively in an adverse international political situation marked by hegemonic positions and unipolarity as well as by internal difficulties and conflicts given the heterogeneity of its membership and, thus, its diverse interests. In 1960, in the light of the results achieved in Bandung, the creation of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries was given a decisive boost during the Fifteenth Ordinary Session of the United Nations General Assembly, during which 17 new African and Asian countries were admitted.
The 1950's were a period of tension because of many problems such as the Berlin Blockade, the Indo-China Vietnam War, the Congo Civil War etc. The world became increasingly bi-polar and a number of nations fell into one camp or other. India played host to the fourth Group of Fifteen summit in March 1994. These include the Working Group on Human Rights, the Task Force of Somalia, the Committee on Palestine, and the Working Group on Disarmament among others. To coordinate actions and strategies in order to confront jointly the threats to international peace and security, including the threats of use of force and the acts of aggression, colonialism and foreign occupation, and other breaches of peace caused by any country or group of countries.
Additionally, member countries may not participate in military agreements with the United States of America or the Soviet Union. In the normal process of consultations, every grouping will get its own weightage and it is convenient to have a lobby behind us. India also participated in the 1961 Belgrade Conference that officially established the Nonaligned Movement, but Nehru's declining prestige limited his influence. While agreement on basic principles has been smooth, taking definitive action vis-à-vis particular international issues has been rare, with the movement preferring to assert its criticism or support rather than pass hard-line resolutions. The world started to hear the voice of non-aligned nations with due respect. Total rejection of aggression as a dangerous and serious breach of International Law, which entails international responsibility for the aggressor. Defense and consolidation of democracy, reaffirming that democracy is a universal value based on the freely expressed will of people to determine their own political, economic, social, and cultural systems and their full participation in all aspects of their life.
Under Indira Gandhi in the early 1980s, India attempted to reassert its prominent role in the Nonaligned Movement by focusing on the relationship between disarmament and economic development. Indian government publications--the Ministry of External Affairs's Annual Report and the monthly Foreign Affairs Record , and the Parliament's Compendium of Policy Statements Made in the Parliament: External Affairs --are important official sources of information. He chooses a path for India that is built on Socialist principles. India never really got blindly into one camp or the other and maintained a more or less independent stance. During its nearly 50 years of existence, the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries has gathered a growing number of States and liberation movements which, in spite of their ideological, political, economic, social and cultural diversity, have accepted its founding principles and primary objectives and shown their readiness to realize them.
World was crazy place at that time and picking winning ideology, partner and winners was a really hard problem. Thus, the primary of objectives of the non-aligned countries focused on the support of self-determination, national independence and the sovereignty and territorial integrity of States; opposition to apartheid; non-adherence to multilateral military pacts and the independence of non-aligned countries from great power or block influences and rivalries; the struggle against imperialism in all its forms and manifestations; the struggle against colonialism, neocolonialism, racism, foreign occupation and domination; disarmament; non-interference into the internal affairs of States and peaceful coexistence among all nations; rejection of the use or threat of use of force in international relations; the strengthening of the United Nations; the democratization of international relations; socioeconomic development and the restructuring of the international economic system; as well as international cooperation on an equal footing. The Non-Aligned Movement has participated in reforms of the United Nations organization, sustainable development initiatives, the self-determination of Puerto Rico and the Western Sahara, as well as being a major critic of United States' foreign policy. This transformation will not be lost on the world community. They also stressed the need to promote actively a leading role for the movement in the coordination of efforts among member states in tackling global threats. In the 1960s and 1970s, New Delhi concentrated on internal problems and bilateral relations, yet retained membership in an increasingly factionalized and radicalized movement.
The system of alliances had been rendered meaningless by the collapse of the East European communist states, the dissolution of the , and the demise of the Soviet Union. Rejection of and opposition to terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, committed by whomever, wherever and for whatever purposes, as it constitutes one of the most serious threats to international peace and security. At the summit, Prime Minister Rao and other leaders expressed concern over new trade barriers being raised by the industrialized countries despite the conclusion of a new world trade agreement. To encourage relations of friendship and cooperation between all nations based on the principles of International Law, particularly those enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations. India also is a founding member of the , a group of developing nations established at the ninth Nonaligned Movement summit in in 1989 to facilitate dialogue with the industrialised countries. During the 14th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement in Havana, Cuba in September 2006, the Heads of States and Governments of the member countries reaffirmed their commitment to the ideals, principles and purposes upon which the movement was founded and with the principles and purposes enshrined in the United Nations Charter.
Origin of Non alignment movement had its origins in India's experience and the nonviolent , which left India determined to be the master of its fate in an international system dominated politically by alliances and economically by Western and Soviet. Non-alignment itself was a policy of peaceful intervention in world's politics. After the attainment of independence, the Conferences expressed a growing concern over economic and social issues as well as over strictly political matters. Solidarity as a fundamental component of relations among nations in all circumstances. Promotion of pacific settlement of disputes and abjuring, under any circumstances, from taking part in coalitions, agreements or any other kind of unilateral coercive initiative in violation of the principles of International Law and the Charter of the United Nations.