Following the Red River War, in the southern plains, some Cheyenne, Kiowa and Comanche prisoners, many arbitrarily selected, had been exiled in Fort Marion Florida. Numerous new European immigrants were settling on the eastern border of the Indian territories, where most of the Native American tribes were situated. Pratt obtained funding from the government to help him to open a boarding school for Indian children in Carlisle, Pennsylvania in 1879. President Grover Cleveland to break up reservation land which was held in common by the tribe into individual 160 acre parcels to be farmed by the Indians. The erosion of Indian land as a result of allotment had created a class of 100,000 landless Indians, adding to the problems of the reservations whose best land had been sold off since 1887.
Note: This statute has been codified in the United States Code at Title 8, Sec. Not surprisingly, many suffered unemployment, slum living and alcoholism. Those who accepted allotments and lived separately from the tribe would be granted United States citizenship. The Dawes Act, despite its creator's good intentions, became the most disastrous legislation ever passed by Congress in regards to Native Americans. Completed in 1928, The Problem of Indian Administration — commonly known as the Meriam Report after the study's director, Lewis Meriam — documented fraud and misappropriation by government agents.
Richard White identifies three ways in which this was done 2. However, the pace of termination slowed in the mid-1950s as it became clear that many Indians had not been properly consulted and few fully understood its implications. Prior to the Dawes Act, 150 million acres belonged to Native Americans. Section Five This section transferred all land holdings to the Secretary of the Interior, to be held in trust for 25 years. American agent, who would provide two copies of land holding deeds to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. The Dawes Act In 1887, the was signed by President allowing the government to divide reservations into small plots of land for individual Indians. Native Americans ended up with a total of over 155 million acres 630,000 km 2 of land, ranging from arid deserts to prime agricultural land.
As Towaconie Jim of the Wichita remarked 'The government treats us as if we had no rights' 12 Between 1881 and 1900 about half the native Americans' land was taken from them. Land allotted to Native Americans was taken out of Trust and subject to taxation. Much of the land allotted to Native Americans in the Great Plains region under the Dawes Act was unsuitable for farming. The reservations lost a further million acres of land, including 400,000 acres for a gunnery range and some for the housing of Japanese-American internees. I hope progress can be made to remedy the situation and allow Native Americans to use their land as they please. They advocated that the government had an obligation to supervise and protect native citizens.
Life on Indian Reservations Daily living on the reservations was hard at best. It remains an emotive issue among historians sympathetic to Native Americans. They worried Indians were being taken advantage of by non-indigenous Americans for their land. Although some white citizen groups were supportive of Indian citizenship, Indians themselves were mixed in the debate. Native beliefs were replaced by Christianity. And no more understanding than if we suddenly had been dropped from the moon. Senator of was one of the most outspoken opponents of allotment.
Girls were to be formally trained in housekeeping, an idea emanating from eighteenth century New England missionaries. The forced assimilation of Native Americans was thus justified as being better for the Indians themselves. This became known as 'assimilation'. Many Native Americans were alarmed about the termination policy. Such institutions would no longer be in control of citizenship regulations if citizenship were automatically granted to all indigenous people. In addition, to manage highly fractionated parcels of land, the government spends more money probating estates, maintaining title records, leasing the land, and attempting to manage and distribute tiny amounts of income to individual owners than is received in income from the land. San Francisco: City Lights Books, 2002.
Arguably one of the most devastating pieces of legislature for Natives, the act slashed millions of acres from the existing land base, broke up tribes as communal units and threatened tribal sovereignty. Despite the now known reality of work being pretty much divided between genders, the eighteenth and nineteenth century stereotype was that the Indian men were lazy and selfish and that women did most of the work. The land the Native Americans were given was often different to the land where they had grown up, so any prior knowledge of the climate and farming techniques they had would have been useless on the new lands. The Dawes Severalty Act was revoked in 1934. However, after the Indian tribes of the Lakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho defeated General George Armstrong Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in southern Montana in late June, 1876, a hundred years after the nation's founding, government troops swarmed into the area to eventually defeat the tribal people and imprison and kill Chief Crazy Horse as well as others. The remainder of the land once allotted to appointed natives was declared surplus and sold to non-native settlers as well as railroad and other large corporations; other sections were converted into federal parks and military compounds.
However, as we know, gold was discovered in them thar hills. Many white feared them and sought reformation. Conflicts between the groups increased as they competed for resources and operated according to different cultural systems. In 1831 the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, John Marshall, had attempted to define their status. The head of a family would receive 160 acres, a single adult person, over the age of 18, would receive 80 acres each, and minors, including orphans born prior to the date of the order of the President directing an allotment, would receive 40 acres each. In successive generations, smaller undivided interests descend to the next generation.
The , though forced upon Native Americans, was a system that allotted each tribe a claim to their new lands, protection over their territories, and the right to govern themselves. The economic consequences of fractionation are severe. Also, with their land privately owned and out of the control of the states and national government, many farmers brought buffalo onto their land, and arguably helped to save the buffalo. Section One This section authorized the President and the U. If they failed to understand this they would be forced to accept the superior culture of the Whites, and to be integrated into American society as individuals, instead of continuing to retain their separate cultural identity. And in December 1828, Georgia ordered the seizure of the remaining Cherokee land in their state. Kill the culture The basic premise behind the new policy was that traditional native American culture had no value.
We were deeply committed to respecting the sovereignty of a tribe. Interesting Dawes Act Facts: Each Native American family head was given 320 acres of grazing land or 160 acres of farmland. However, after these tribes had proven unwilling to voluntarily accept individual allotments of land, the Curtis Act of 1898 amended the Dawes Act to apply to the Five Civilized Tribes. The nation had just fought a major war to destroy one collectivist ideology — Nazism — and the onset of the Cold War in the late 1940s made most Americans worried about the power and ambitions of another — Communism. Recent films have celebrated some of their best-known contributions. Liberals like Schurtz, Secretary of the Interior 1877-1881, saw the Indians as 'standing in the way of the development of the country, they would form part of it and benefit by it. In practice, this meant requiring them to become as much like white Americans as possible: converting to Christianity, speaking English, wearing western clothes and hair styles, and living as selfsufficient, independent Americans.