Streets should be able to effectively ask for help when enormous problems arise. Jane Jacobs was adept at using guerilla politics to move the powers that be. The slums cannot be emptied unless and until there is more low-cost housing elsewhere. Urban renewal is the separation of uses like residential, industrial and commercial from each other thereby decreasing diversity of cities. In prose of outstanding immediacy, Jane Jacobs writes about what makes streets safe or unsafe; about what constitutes a neighborhood, and what function it serves within the larger organism of the city; about why some neighborhoods remain impoverished while others regenerate themselves.
It is especially crowded out if the sidewalks also lack minor irregularities in building line. Any attempt to simplify things — to make them more orderly — will hurt the city and its people. Three types of neighborhoods Her fixation on Hudson leads Jacobs to contend there are only three types of neighborhoods: 1 the street neighborhood, a la Hudson; 2 districts of 100,000 people or more, such as East Harlem; and 3 the city as a whole. But for anyone in the United States or Canada with any interest in urban planning, city life, or why some cities work and others don't, I recommend this book wholeheartedly. I would have loved a follow-up analysis of the impact of this book and the changes in urban planning in the subsequent fifty years. He therefore is most understandably reluctant to see them disappear.
See previous image of to travel around the city. Jacobs is out to reform all of city planning, it is necessary to examine her central ideas more closely. In this culture, the home is reserved for the family, so that much social life takes place outdoors. But these increments or displacements have to be gradual. Neighborhoods which are designed on the basis of these principles—and which provide Mrs. Unlike the current practice in which the government acts as the landlord, these people can and should be housed by private enterprises in regular buildings, not projects.
The attack is not aimed at the practice of city planning, but rather at the principles, and what they are based upon. Every park should have a center. The ballet of the good city sidewalk never repeats itself from place to place, and in any once place is always replete with new improvisations. The quality of everyday life diminishes rapidly. In luxury buildings, door-men watch the empty streets and discourage the criminal visitor, but in public housing projects, there are no doormen, and the interior streets and elevators invite rape, theft, and vandalism.
They were a declaration of independence from wrong-headedness. She suggests that if these areas could be made more diverse, the initial occupants might not leave, and owners would then be able to rehabilitate the buildings. The buildings on a street equipped to handle strangers and to insure the safety of both residents and strangers, must be oriented to the street. The current practice is to lay all of the cause of the problems to a lack of money. Conversely, homogeny or superficially diverse-looking homogeneous areas lack beauty. Those living in the old streets had the opportunity to circumvent trouble unlike those that walk to the projects.
In other words, housing would be built specifically for lower-income people, usually partly subsidized. This not only erodes the variety of dwellers and businesses as the base for diversity in that specific district, but also has a cross-effect on the diversity of other localities by depriving them from such profitable businesses and affluent residents needed for mutual support. However, one cannot take advantage of this fact without being able to get around easily. First she argues that diversity does not innately diminish visual order. It fuses ineffectual elements of discontent into a program that can pack quite a wallop. Snobs In a way, Jacobs and Moses had the same problem. Elevators, and the separation of the building from the street by a moat of useless open space, frustrate maternal supervision of children, thus keeping children off the street.
Third, buildings should be at varying ages, accommodating different people and businesses which can afford different levels of rents. People's feelings about it, rather, have changed. Jacobs also analyzes the economic interrelationships that exist in successful neighborhoods. It's a book full of both clear-eyed analysis and constructive emotional engagement, full of contageous enthusiasm and practical suggestions. Later Le Corbusier devised the Radiant City, composed of skyscrapers within a park. As a sentimental concept, 'neighborhood' is harmful to city planning.
Not about how to In the last third of the book, Jacobs is getting very nuts-and-bolts about ideas for improvement, such as tearing down high-rise public housing and creating fast-track city licensing procedures, that seem to have been germinating in many minds for a good while. In fact, to make these areas successful and thereby dispose of such ruinous uses, diversity should be enhanced. For instance, the reason that slums remain slums is the unstable population of residents there, ready to get out when they have the choice. The colossal physical destruction that was necessary to implement this vision tore apart the traditional multi-activity street and densely populated neighborhood that Jacobs avers is the bedrock of urban living. She proposes tactics of giving room to other desired city uses which compete with automobile traffic needs such as widening sidewalks for street displays which would narrow the vehicular roadbed and thereby automatically reduce car use, and traffic congestion. The current expenditures based on the current principles of city planning have not done anything but rather lead to the decay of the cities. The district, and indeed as many of its internal parts as possible, must serve more than one primary function; preferably more than two.
. Yet, Jacobs was aware, at least dimly, of the possibility. One whom is in frequent contact with a wide circle of people such as storekeepers. Districts must serve mixed use functions to activate the streets at different times of the day. It is true that some areas occupied by non-mobile ethnic groups, notably the North End and Back-of-the-Yards, hold their residents longer than other areas. And, aside from this structural clout, the political system in Chicago gives the local alderman virtual control over the distribution of city services in a ward.
The one drawback of this book from my perspective is that it's now nearly fifty years old and I'm not well-read in urban planning or the history of cities. Much land is taken for parking alone—small business fails, theatres, clinics and small business people only use the Wal Mart for general can be harmful—preferring big needs, even eyeglasses. The North End and the Back-of-the-Yards district are not holding their young people, who tend to move to the suburbs as soon as they have children to raise. But the fact still remains that many people like to live in such isolated towers or groupings of towers. Her argument is built on three fundamental assumptions: that people desire diversity; that diversity is ultimately what makes cities live and that the lack of it makes them die; and that buildings, streets, and the planning principles on which they are based, shape human behavior. Worse still, the new buildings with high rents squeeze out the marginal activities, the small business man just getting a start, the colorful shop with strange and exotic waves, the little restaurants and bars, almost everything deviant, bohemian, intellectual or bizarre-- in other words, all that the author believes lends spice, charm and vigor to an area.