Even as Spanish rulers embarked on the Reconquista and Isabel and Ferdinand expelled or murdered many of the Moors, Jews, and other non-straight Catholic citizens, they more or less kept much of the buildings and architecture created. Islamic architecture can also be misleading as one may understand that it refers to the architecture of a particular religious Islamist group or that of a religious function, while in reality it refers to the Islamic way of building and the specific style developed in the civilisation of Islam. The articulation of elements such as arches, domes and columns, calligraphic illustrations and geometrical decorating patterns create a continuous sense of peace and contemplation. The arch was first employed for structural and functional purposes but progressively it became used for decorative purposes. The 8th-century desert palace Khirbat al-Mafjar in present-day Jordan reveals a wealth of carved and molded stucco decoration, sculptured stone reliefs, and figural fresco paintings.
It has four minarets and stained-glass windows flanking the mihrab. The enclosed courtyard is a traditional feature of Umayyad architecture. Other significant features employed as motifs include columns, piers and arches, organized and interwoven with alternating sequences of niches and colonnettes. While the rest of the continent was living through the Dark Ages, al-Andalus was flourishing. The most important Fatimid buildings are the Cairo mosques of al-Azhar and al-Aqmar. Therefore, an army of 12000 Muslims led by a young mancrossed the Strait of Gibraltar and prevailed in most of the Spanish cities including Malaga,Toledo, Barcelona, and Zaragosa Campo, 2009; Lapunzina, 2005; Dozy, 1932.
Some were mere lookout towers; others contained a palace or a whole city. Islamic architecture is unique in this case because interior designs often lack or have unknown religious connections. It is patterned after the nearby and artists were employed to create its elaborate against a golden background. Distinctive Architectural Features With the construction of the Alhambra, Islamic art reached new heights of elegance. Spectacular and stately edifices erected by and in and helped to disseminate the influence of the in India, thus giving rise to the celebrated school of architecture. Saladin , the plan of the mosque was derived from older Semitic sanctuaries.
One of the most famous examples of Moorish architecture, the Mezquita or Grand Mosque of Cordoba, Spain, is today the region's Catholic. The mosque was extended three times. In this region, late antique, or Christian, architectural traditions merged with the pre-Islamic Arabian heritage of the conquerors. Modern concepts tend to regard the transition between the cultures rather as a selective process of informed appropriation and transformation. The use of public baths formed a focal part of Moorish daily life and those in , in the basement of the , are the largest to have been discovered in Europe.
The in and are huge castle-like fortified palaces, and the abandoned city of , 26 miles 42 km west of , was built for in the late 16th century. The extensive inscription bands of calligraphy and arabesque on most of the major buildings where carefully planned and executed by , who was appointed head of the royal library and Master calligrapher at the Shah's court in 1598, while oversaw the construction projects. In 750 the Abbasid dynasty moved the capital east to Baghdad, and from 836 to 892 the Abbasid rulers resided at Samarra. Distinguishing of Islamic architecture have always been the of ordered repetition, radiating structures, and rhythmic, metric patterns. The principal Islamic architectural types are: the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace, the Fort, the School, and urban buildings. The Mosques founder was Abd al-Rahman I r.
There are several aspects of Islamic architecture that to modern knowledge lack a symbolic religious meaning, but there are connections that do exist. Iranian architecture and city planning also reached an apogee under the , in particular with the monuments of , marked by extensive use of exterior ceramic tiles and vaulting within. Muslims in Spain In my last post I wrote about the Muslim surge into the Iberian Peninsula and about , where Muslim caliphate ruled for nearly 300 years. The Great Mosque of Cordoba is a unanimously known architectural creation of Medieval Times. What you see now is a mix of both Moorish and Renaissance architecture.
While the rest of Europe was muddling through the Dark Ages, Islamic Spain was flourishing and making incredible advancements in all fields. Figure 1: The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is a key example of Islamic architecture. Bab al Futuh is a gate in the walls of the Old City of Cairo, facing north. They propound that the nomadic lifestyle of the Arabs discouraged any form of permanent settlement and thus any architectural or building tradition. Its expansion over a vast territory, incorporating three continents, provided a cultural richness that played a significant role in the elaboration of Muslim art and architecture. Within a city quarter, byroads lead towards individual building complexes or clusters of houses.
Islamic Science and Engineering, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. One architectural feature that made Somali mosques distinct from other mosques in Africa were. The ribbed vaults of the mosque-cathedral of Córdoba served as models for later mosque buildings in the Islamic West of and the. The maqsura is generously adorned with engraved marble, stucco, and mosaics. While we only have an excavation site today, Azahara was once the capital of the Caliphate of Córdoba. Built in 691—692, about 55 years after the Arab conquest of Jerusalem, the design and ornamentation are rooted in the Byzantine architectural tradition but also display traits that would later come to be associated with a distinctly Islamic architectural style.
The most extravagant interior decoration is found in the maqsura. The culture of Islamic Spain reached its apogee in. Nevertheless, Granada with her famous castle, Alhambra, was defeated by the Spaniards. The square Char Minar of Hyderabad 1591 with large arches, arcades, and minarets is typical. In Gothic architecture, it enabled architects to lighten the walls and buttresses, which had to be massive to support earlier semi¬circular arches. Archeologists have found fortifications on the site dating back to Roman times and earlier, but the citadel was begun in the 10th century and acquired its current form in a massive expansion and reconstruction during the Ayyubid era about 1171—1260.
Islamic architecture : form, function, and meaning Casebound ed. The Nasrid dynasty at Granada is remembered for its high levels of taste and luxury, symbolized by the delicate architecture of the Alhambra Palace. Have you visited any of these structures or have you seen other examples of Islamic architecture in Spain? Figure 3: Arcade of transverse arches in Mahdia Mosque Tunisia 11 th century. The pictures may be divided into two types: those that illustrate scientific works, descending directly from late Hellenistic models, and those that illustrate anecdotal tales and whose miniatures display lively detail. There are numerous sayings about building and making use of earth, e. From early palaces of the Ummayyad and Abbassid Caliphate to modern houses, there was much observance of distinction between private and public spaces. Indonesian original mosques feature multi-layered pyramidal roofs and no minaret.