Summarize A good discussion will begin by restating the study question and any hypotheses presented in the introduction. Since the university is expected to lead in teaching of research, there is need for increased support for undergraduate research, as a starting point for research education. Furthermore, words near the citations in the various sections differ, providing the basis for lexical and semantic analysis of citation contexts. If your study is not preliminary, end with a strong statement that summarizes the impact of the study without over-stating its importance. Nakayama T, Hirai N, Yamazaki S, Naito M.
No new results or terms should be introduced in the discussion section; all findings should be described in the results section and relevant terms will all have been introduced in the introduction section. Lawyers lawyers, magistrates, unions notamments use, to defend textual databases of jurisprudence. You can explain poor results, and speculate on the value of good results. Please take a moment to review. The number of articles found by year are summarised in Table , with the highest number of 33 in 2007 and lowest number of 5 seen in 1990.
In a randomly selected subsample of forty-eight articles, the data collection was independently repeated after six months. They also guide authors in summarizing the content of their manuscripts precisely, facilitate the peer-review process for manuscripts submitted for publication, and enhance computerized literature searching ,. In the next part of the course we will discuss the standard structure and what to include in each section. In this paper, we address this problem from the point of view of textual statistics. It's not usually described in those terms, which apply better to narrative writing such as history and fiction.
However, it is also possible that similar or related studies are published during the several months it takes to perform the research. Because citations are commonly used as criteria for research evaluation, it is important to question their social background to better understand how it impacts textual features. Put another way, it should be clear from the introduction what related work has been done before, why the current study was performed, what you did, and what you found. A sample of 1 in every 10 issues of 4 leading medical journals in internal medicine was systematically selected to evaluate the articles published in these years. Then, you should explain how you conducted your research, and how you analysed your findings. The experimental report was purely descriptive, and events were often presented in chronological order. However, it is important to remember that graphics are important components of the results section, and therefore, that there should be no redundancies or duplications among the text, figures and tables.
The abstract should, however, be composed to function as an autonomous text, even if some authors and readers may think of it as an almost integral part of the article. Discussion In the discussion, you should explain and interpret your results. Acknowledgements: Names people who contributed to the work, but did not contribute sufficiently to earn authorship. We examine the different distributions of the references in the articles in different journals and show that these distributions are relatively stable and maybe even invariant when taking into account the inversions of sections identified in some journals. Reduced engagement could also point to a different trend developing over time, there seems to be little support for undergraduate research in both the curricula and in extracurricular activities. Example The figure below, showing excerpts from the discussion section of paper published in The Journal of Clinical Investigation doi:10. Researchers are busy people and so it is imperative that research articles are quick and easy to read.
The writing of medical papers. Journal of the Medical Library Association. Hence, over the last few year, we are witnessing an increasing body of literature on the citation context of scientific papers e. Even to scientists, it may not be obvious that their papers provide the simplest way of communicating research. The methods can be written while you are performing the research or analyzing the results.
Our aim is to stimulate research at the intersection of Bibliometrics and Computational Linguistics in order to study the ways Bibliometrics can benefit from large-scale text analytics and sense mining of scientific papers, thus exploring the interdisciplinarity of Bibliometrics and Natural Language Processing. . Novel techniques need to be described in detail so that they can easily be replicated, but established and commonly used techniques can be referenced as long as any variations between the method used in the present study and that described in the cited study are clearly described. As with all references to the literature, the literature cited in the introduction needs to be current, balanced and relevant. You could, for example, critically evaluate the methods you have used, and explain what you could have done differently. Conclusion Write these sections next, once you have had a chance to analyse your results, have a sense of their impact and have decided on the journal you think best suits the work 6. It is usually a good idea to briefly describe what was done and what was found at the end of the introduction, but it is important not to go into too much detail or you will end up repeating what is already described in the methods and results sections.
This text can be entered into the to choose an appropriate target journal early on in the writing process. Discussion, the final section, fits the research findings into the larger scientific community and theorizes about future implications. Twenty-one journals requested structured abstracts in their instructions to authors; 8 journals requested the 8-heading format; and 1 journal requested it only for intervention studies. Thus, the methods section needs to be comprehensive. Once decided, you will then need to describe them in a logical order.