In 1964, a new constitution was introduced, converting Afghanistan into a constitutional monarchy, and a year later the country's first general election was held. Afghanistan had long been the focal point of American government. The boundary with , 909 km 564. When Rabbani fled the capital, Pakistan and officially recognized the Taliban government in Kabul. Silk Road Noun ancient trade route through Central Asia linking China and the Mediterranean Sea. Masoud controlled the high passes of the Panjshir Valley in the east of the country.
Showing sympathy with Afghanistan does not mean that the super powers care about Afghanistan. The Taliban remained in power until 2001 when U. A new Afghan government was formed, supported by the International Security Force of the United Nations Security Council. Everyone tries to give a hand with Afghanistan in order to use this country as a tool for achieving their targets The concept behind showing sympathy with Afghanistan and stabilizing the region is nothing more than fake promises made on political grounds. Afghanistan's capital city, Kabul, is located in the east central part of the country.
The judicial branch is comprised of a nine member Supreme Court and High Courts and Appeals Courts. When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 and the communist government simultaneously fell in Kabul, most imports started to flood in from Pakistan. However, the continuing war reduced production significantly. According to the , at the end of the twentieth century, Afghans were the largest refugee population in the world. In cultivated districts the chief trees seen are , , , and occasionally the ; but these are because of man's planting. Even afterwards, it actively works for the mutual alliance and unity of the Muslims. Al-Biruni 973 —1048 , the great Arab encyclopedist, was born in Khiva but settled in Ghazn ī, where he died.
The Taliban forbade women to work or enter any workplace, decreeing that they should stay confined to their homes. Pakistan is considering to develop wind turbines to fulfill the demand for electricity. The principal linguistic and ethnic group in Afghanistan are the Pashtun. This last change was announced not by Radio Kabul but by Radio and was preceded by the airlift of 4,000 to 5,000 Soviet troops into Kabul on 25 —26 December, purportedly at the request of an Afghan government whose president, Hafizullah Amin, was killed during the takeover. Although the crisis subsided, tensions between the Taliban and Iran remained high.
There were also tensions between religious and secular legal training with regard to appointments of new judicial personnel. Najibullah offered the mujahedeen a cease-fire and introduced a much-publicized national reconciliation policy; he also released some political prisoners, offered to deal with the resistance leaders, and promised new land reform. On 18 September 2005, Afghans went to the polls to elect a lower house of parliament and councils in each of the country's 34 provinces. The availability of land suitable for grazing has made an important part of the economy. Summers are especially hot in the low-lying areas of Sistan Basin in the southwest, the Jalalabad basin in the east, and the Turkistan plains along the Amu River in the north, where temperatures average over 95°F 35°C in July.
For 10 years Soviet forces occupied the country and dictated its governance, but local rebel forces, known as the mujahideen, drove the Soviets out in 1989. In 1999 the number of schools operating in the northern region declined to 547, but the number of schools operating in the eastern region increased to 828, to 652 in the southern region, to 449 in the western region, and to 608 in the central region. Subsequent fighting among warring factions plunged the country into anarchy and set the stage for the emergence of the ultraconservative Islamic movement, Taliban, which ousted the Rabbani government and controlled all but the northern most provinces of the country. The Mongols controlled the area until 1747 when Ahmad Shah Durrani founded what is present-day Afghanistan. The Tajiks, of Iranian stock, comprise nearly 27% of the population and are mainly concentrated in the north and northeast.
Every town has at least one wide thoroughfare, but other streets are narrow lanes between houses of mud brick, taller than those in the villages and featuring decorative wooden balconies. Afghanistan's climate is arid to semiarid and has very hot summers and very cold winters. There were thought to be fewer than 100 snow leopards by 2002. First, at the district and municipal level, traditional shura councils met to pick electors —persons who cast ballots for Loya Jirga delegates. Production started in 1967 with 342 million cu m but had risen to 2. Given that the country is heavily dependent on subsistence agriculture, the decline in income levels and the increased lack of food security a country's ability to feed its own people increased poverty and caused other economic difficulties. At Kandahar snow seldom falls on the plains or lower hills; when it does, it melts at once.
On 26 —27 September 1996, the Pashtun-dominated ultraconservative Islamic Taliban movement captured the capital of Kabul and expanded its control to over 90% of the country by 2000. There are provincial museums at Bamyan, Ghazn ī, Her āt, Maz ār-e Sharif, Maimana, and Qandah ār. The largest is the , 42 percent of the population. Traditionally, women had few rights in Afghanistan, with their role limited largely to the home and the fields. In the light of strategic context outlined above, Afghanistan is in great position to link the markets of South Asia, Middle East, Central Asia and China as a transit and transport hub. Rabbani claimed that he remained the head of the government. After the fall of Taliban, it was expected that the new government would refocus on the revival of the lost opportunity but unfortunately no satisfactory result has gained yet.