The fact that there are different perspectives represents the complexity and richness of human and animal behavior. Words: 1792 - Pages: 8. The core assumption of this approach is that the roots of mental disorders are psychological. The behaviourist approach was developed due to the lack of empirical studies in the psychodynamic approach. Skinner formed five different reinforcement schedules after noticing that the learned behaviours became extinct after prolonged periods; continuous reinforcement, fixed ratio, fixed interval, variable ratio, variable interval. Another real strength of this experiment is that it is relatable to humans. John Broadus Watson revolutionised psychology and established behaviourism.
They conditioned a young boy Little Albert to respond with anxiety to the stimulus of a white rat; they achieved this by pairing the rat with a loud noise that already made Albert anxious. The whole movement had evolved from the early philosophers, such as Aristotle and Plato. For example giving house points or stars or sweets to a pupil who completes their m homework means they will be more likely to complete their homework because they are being rewarded for doing it. As such, it tends to lose sight of the role of socialization which is different in each country and the possibility of free will. Burrhus Frederic Skinner was an American psychologist. Skinner proposed that our differences in our learning experiences are the main reason behind our individual differences in our behavior.
It suggests that there are three ways in which this learning can happen, these are classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social learning. This theory suggests that humans are born with nothing in their heads and that everything is learnt later on in life through the environment. The anxiety response was transferred to the rat because it was presented together with the loud noise. Pushing the food lever causes the rat to become positively reinforced, the term used to describe something pleasurable being given after a certain action. Psychoanalysts would argue the psychodynamics of a situation contributes greatly to the learning and that behaviourists do not account for this. From time to time the rat would press the lever which provided food. This was studied by Ivan Pavlov using dogs.
Official statistics is based on crimes that are reported to the police and recorded in the official figures. Due to this observation we can discredit this theory. Words: 462 - Pages: 2. Pavlov would take a dog and give it food, before the dog would salivate. This allows the formation of new behaviours. Make sure that you do not simply copy these bullet points down, you need to say what they mean.
The psychodynamic model has a number of strengths. Two other assumptions of this theory are that the environment shapes behaviour and that taking internal mental states such as thoughts… 2398 Words 10 Pages in psychology are the behaviourist approach and the biological also known as physiological approach. Submitted By dwizzle69 Words 462 Pages 2 Describe and evaluate the behaviourist approach in psychology. The response overgeneralised to other stimuli that resembled the rat, including a rabbit and a fur coat. However, while it theories are argued for empirically the behaviourist approach fails to consider nature as a cause of behaviour.
The causal level of analysis incorporates physiological explanations, such as the effect of nerves and hormones on behaviour. The Ebinghaus study, where he collected data over several weeks to see if he was capable of remembering. It shows how animals and humans can…. The biological approach states that things that your vocabulary and how articulate you are, is due to a part of the brain called the cerebral cortex. Behaviourists do not believe that behaviour has any contribution from biology.
For this reason, Scientists believe that conclusions drawn from subjective experiences are almost impossible to verify, making research in humanistic psychology unreliable Another assumption of the Humanistic approach is that all human beings strive to and aim to reach their full potential or self actualisation; to achieve maximum personal growth. Classical conditioning is learning through positive and negative association. Therefore, according to the two-process model, phobias are initiated through classical conditioning learning through association and maintained through operant conditioning negative reinforcement. Each of these theories has a different point of emphasis when approaching the core psychological questions of why, how, and what. Obviously, this is the polar opposite of the behaviourist approach. Describe and evaluate the Behaviourist Approach The basic assumption of the behaviourist approach is that all behaviour is learned through experiences a person has in their environment.
This investigation can also be applied to humans in that often drug addicts die after taking amounts of drugs they previously could have coped with. The behaviourist approach also discounts emotion in our learning from the environment. Behaviourism is concerned with the observable characteristics of humankind; their behaviour. Pavlov found that after conditioning the bell became a conditioned stimulus, this is the term used to refer to a stimulus which has been associated with the unconditioned stimulus on its own. . I will discuss in some detail the two approaches, state how they compare and illustrate the similarities and the differences between them.
In positive reinforcement the rat is given food when it presses the lever. Behaviour is determined by our interactions and experiences in the environment. A strength of this is that it might stop the behaviour, but a limitation is that it might cause the individual to snap and fight back. There is a lot of evidence to support this theory. It is suggested that the official statistics account for 25% of actual crime. Internal processes that the brain is capable of such as thoughts, emotions and rationalisation are overlooked.