Some of their works will shed light on activism, culture, and history, some expose the challenges of living on reservations or establishing an identity in the modern world, and all are beautiful, well-written pieces of poetry, prose, and non-fiction that are excellent reads, regardless of the heritage of their authors. In the 1950s, major dramatists, notably Arthur Miller, Edward Albee, and Sam Shepard, developed the American theatre. These histories, published in 1608 and 1624, are among the earliest works of American literature. The Puritans considered the saving of the soul the most important matter, and they neglected whatever form of culture did not directly tend toward that result. His masterpiece, Leaves of Grass, a collection of poems, is widely studied by poets, students and academics, set to music, translated into numerous languages, and is widely quoted. He refused the traditional constraints of rhyme and meter in favor of free verse in Leaves of Grass 1855 , and his frankness in subject matter and tone repelled some critics.
This list touches on just a few of the amazing Native American authors out there and can be a great starting point for those wanting to learn more throughout this month and the rest of the year. He is as well known for the story of Pocahontas as for all of his other achievements. In early America, the Age of Reason was seen in the forced mechanations necessary to survival- man had to use reason to find ways of simply surviving in the difficult environment. Visit Ralph Waldo Emerson 1803-1882 An ordained minister, Boston-born Emerson was a philosopher, essayist and poet whose insightful prose explored the mind of man and his relationship with nature. A modernist classic of Old South decay, this novel circles the travails of the Compson family from four different narrative perspectives. James emigrated to Europe and embraced psychological realism in novels such as Portrait of a Lady 1881 , andTwain used national dialects in classics like Huckleberry Finn 1885. November is Native American Heritage Month, a celebration meant to give recognition to the significant contribution the native peoples have made to the history, culture, and growth of the United States.
His intentions were certainly good. Realist, metafictional, postmodern, absurdist, autobiographical, short, long, fragmentary, feminist, stream of consciousness—these and dozens more labels can be applied to the vast output of American novelists. Notable authors of American literature include: , who wrote some of its earliest works; , who wrote the first African American book; , a standout of the Romantic era; , a celebrated poet; , a woman who wrote poetry at a time when the field was largely dominated by men; , a master of humour and realism; , a novelist who articulated the disillusionment of the ; and , a writer who centred her works on the black experience and received a Nobel Prize in 1993. Transcendentalists held that God can be found in every aspect of nature including humanity , and that everyone is capable of reaching God through intuition. He had the Elizabethan love of achievement, and he records his admiration for those whose 'pens writ what their swords did. Now whether shee was better roasted, boyled, or carbonado'd I know not, but of such a dish as powdered wife I never heard of. Our arms, though ne'er so strong, Will want the aid of his commanding tongue, Which conquered more than Caesar.
Those who remained in England could not clear away the forest, till the soil, and contend with Indians, but they could write the books and send them across the ocean. Drama came to prominence for the first time in the United States in the early 20th century. Visit Harper Lee 1926- To Kill a Mockingbird is her only published novel, winning the Monroeville, Ala. But, in its fragmentation, it captures moments of friendship, grief, humour and regret, offering a unique perspective of the Holocaust. As early as the nineteenth century, English critics, like John Addington Symonds, Robert Louis Stevenson, and Edward Dowden, have testified to the power of the democratic element in American literature and willingly admitted that without a study of Cooper, Poe, and Hawthorne no one could give an adequate account of the landmarks of achievement in fiction written in English. This movement resulted in collision with the French, who were at this time holding the central part of the country, from the Gulf into Canada. There were, however, thirteen colonies stretched along the seaboard from Georgia 1733 , the last to be founded, to Canada.
The Puritans even wondered if singing in church was not an exercise which turned the mind from God. Cotton Mather would not have lived in vain if he had done nothing else except to help mold Franklin for the service of his country; but this is only one of Mather's achievements. Among the important poets of this period are In the early decades of the contemporary period, American drama was dominated by three men: , , and. Few men have ever voluntarily abandoned more than Winthrop, or clung more tenaciously to their ideals. Is Smith apparently a novice, or somewhat skilled in writing prose? In his account of his adventures, written in Virginia in 1608, he does not mention this rescue, but in his later writings he relates it as an actual occurrence. Nathaniel Hawthorne was a novelist and short story writer. Even in England, modern prose may almost be said to begin with John Dryden, who died at the beginning of the eighteenth century.
Channing's A Students' History of the United States. Those who keep them seldom commit to writing many of the most interesting events and secrets of their lives. In the first part of his young manhood he crossed the Channel, voyaged in the Mediterranean, fought the Turks, killing three of them in single combat, was taken prisoner and enslaved by the Tartars, killed his inhuman master, escaped into Russia, went thence through Europe to Africa, was in desperate naval battles, returned to England, sailing thence for Virginia, which he reached at the age of twenty-eight. Some of those early writings were quite accomplished, such as the account of his adventures by Captain John Smith in Virginia and the journalistic histories of John Winthrop and William Bradford in New England. In the first place, the Elizabethans possessed initiative. The Bible was read, reread, and constantly studied, and it took the place of secular poetry and prose. Both were inspired by Pueblo oral traditions and stories.
Romantic literature often involves an escape from civilization and responsibility, frequently leading to a more simplistic life. We must not forget that the Puritans came to America to secure a higher form of spiritual life. The rivers on of Babilon there-when wee did sit downe: yea even then wee mourned, when wee remembred Sion. The Virginians and the other southern colonists lived more by agriculture, were more widely scattered, had fewer schools, more slaves, and less town life than the New Englanders. Let none object this is men's corruption, and nothing to the course itself. Scott Fitzgerald 1896-1940 A native of St.
They were men of energy and ability, who could lead their congregations to Holland or to the wilds of New England. All knew the hard labor and the privations involved in subduing the wilderness and making permanent settlements in a new land. Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation. For the sake of classification, in fact, all of the literature of the period can be broken down into just ten genres: 1 travel writing, most often written by the explorers themselves to describe the land, indigenous peoples, and log the exploration, starting with preparations for the journey, the voyage, arrival and explorations in the territory and interactions with natives, and the return to Great Britain, if one was made, 2 historical writing; historians have written in every age since the Hebrews wrote the Old Testament; these consist of long essays or narratives and relate tell a non-fiction account of what transpired; usually written in the third person, and covering significant events of general interest, 3 religious writing, usually written by clergy in the form of journals, sermons, or commentaries on the Bible and religious experiences, 4 philosophy, a genre that ranges from pure metaphysical speculation, to early sociology, to transcendentalism; written in the form of long essays, 5 natural science writings, 6 newspaper, journalism, and political essay writing, covering most recent events to essays and pamphlets written to persuade others to the author's opinion, 7 poetry, 8 drama, 9 humor, 10 fiction in the form of short stories, or sketches, and novels. The other problem with covering this period by genre is that many of its most famous writers wrote in more than one genre, so the same writer must be considered multiple times.