B, thanks for a great year! During his leadership, from 336 to 323 B. Together, Alexander and his father would create an army unlike anything the ancient world had even seen. Conquered cities being the general 2 years later as well. Petersburg Interestingly, Alexander didn't pursue Darius after the battle at Issus. The very nature of the phalanx required constant drilling, and both men demanded strict obedience; punishments would be meted out for those who disobeyed. Some of the men had children by Asian women, and it was Alexander's orders that these should be left behind to avoid the trouble among their families at home, which might be caused by the introduction of half-caste children; he promised to have them brought up on Macedonian lines, with particular attention to their military training, and added that when they grew up he would himself bring them back to Macedonia and hand them over to their fathers.
The riches of Egypt and Cyrene, which I acquired without fighting a battle, have come to you. To bolster his argument, Alexander uses and facts. He had, first of all, a father whose accomplishments laid a firm foundation for his later success. For me every virtuous foreigner is a Greek and every evil Greek worse than a Barbarian. He saw that the ground level inside the citadel was higher than outside. Philip completely restructured the army. While they continued to beg for his pity, he stepped forward as if to speak, but was anticipated by one Callines, an officer of the Companions, distinguished both by age and rank.
For agonizing moments, he held the breach alone against the Indians. You have Alexander, they Darius. Already the sight of Alexander in Median clothes had caused them no little distress, and most of them had found the Persian marriage ceremonies by no means to their tasteeven some of the actual participants had objected to the foreign form of the ceremony, in spite of the fact that they were highly honoured by being, for the occasion, on a footing of equality with the King. The battle-hardened men who fought for Philip and Alexander had to remain dedicated to his king and the glory of Macedonia. Our ships will sail round from the Persian Gulf to Libya as far as the Pillars of Hercules, whence all Libya to the eastward will soon be ours, and all Asia too, and to this empire there will be no boundaries but what God Himself has made for the whole world. Once there, you may bring good government to Greece and enter your ancestral: house with all the glory of the many great victories won in this campaign, and then, should you so desire it, you may begin again and undertake a new expedition against these Indians of the East or, if you prefer, to the Black Sea or to Carthage and the Libyan territories beyond. However, Alexander then uses fear as a tactic, suggesting the possibility of dangerous consequences if they fail to move forward, which seems to contradict the idea of an undefeatable army.
But for the purpose of making you understand when you take yourselves off, what kind of men you have been to us who have conferred such benefits upon you. Obviously, the length of the sarissa made it difficult to handle, demanding both strength and dexterity. Rumors flew about the camp that the kingdoms against which Alexander would lead them could muster thousands of war elephants and hundreds of thousands of tough soldiers. If necessary, I should be your arbitrator. Finally, impelled by shame, small groups came forward to join their king and break into the citadel. For though I inherited from my father only a few gold and silver goblets, and there were not even sixty talents in the treasury, and though I found myself charged with a debt of 500 talents owing by Philip, and I was obliged myself to borrow 800 talents in addition to these, I started from the country which could not decently support you, and forthwith laid open to you the passage of the Hellespont, though at that time the Persians held the sovereignty of the sea.
If you have any complaint to make about the results of your efforts hitherto, or about myself as your commander, there is no more to say. Moreover I shall prove to you, my friends, that the Indian and Persian Gulfs and the Hyrcanian Sea are all three connected and continuous. The army had been lashed by the monsoon since it left the Hydaspes. On the other hand, I do indeed know that Alexander, of all the monarchs of old, was the only one who had the nobility of heart to be sorry for his mistakes. Up to this point, he has led these men on a very successful mission of conquering the then-known world.
He commenced the descent of the Indus. The cavalry encircled the city until the infantry could come up for a proper assault. Here in Susa, Alexander received the various officials in charge of affairs in the newly built towns and the governors of the territories he had previously overrun. Although a Spartan boy learned enough to be literate, more importantly, he learned how to endure pain and to in battle, in essence to fight as a unit not as an individual. The Athenians and Thebans, who were always lying in wait to attack Macedonia, he humbled to such a degree, I also then rendering him my personal aid in the campaign, that instead of paying tribute to the former and being vassals to the latter, those states in their turn procure security to themselves by our assistance. Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again. At this point, however, his troops finally refused to further, and mutinous thoughts stirred after eight hard years of combat and marching.
Instead of the hides he gave you cloaks to wear, and from the mountains he led you down into the plains, and made you capable of fighting the neighboring barbarians, so that you were no longer compelled to preserve yourselves by trusting rather to the inaccessible strongholds than to your own valor. After besieging Gaza on his way to Egypt, Alexander easily achieved his conquest; Egypt fell without resistance. It was a somewhat vague and unsatisfactory promise; he did, however, give the clearest proof of how warmly he felt for them, and of how much he would miss them when they had gone, by his decision to entrust them on their journey to the leadership and protection of Craterus, the most loyal of his officers and a man he loved as dearly as his own life. The Macedonians encircled the city, but for once Alexander abandoned an immediate assault. The conquered territory belongs to you; from your ranks the governors of it are chosen; already the greater part of its treasure passes into your hands, and when all Asia is overrun, then indeed I will go further than the mere satisfaction of our ambitions: the utmost hopes of riches or power which each one of you cherishes will be far surpassed, and whoever wishes to return home will be allowed to go, either with me or without me. With all that accomplished, why do you hesitate to extend the power of Macedon— yourpower—to the Hyphasis and the tribes on the other side? Thats pretty cool I wanna do that.
He pointed out how few were left of the Macedonians and Greeks who had set out for Asia with him. And what, finally, of the two men in supreme command? Through missile fire alone, his men cleared the walls of defenders, then stormed the citadel from all sides. But Perdiccas found the city empty, its inhabitants having already fled. Alexander bounded through the rubble to mount the broken base of the wall. As with the previously abandoned hoplite phalanx, the new army was designed to attack and remained a purely offensive weapon. Peucestas and Leonnatus stepped in front of his body to shield him with their own, as arrows, darts and stones rained down on them.
Although Alexander was already the undisputed king of Asia, he would not be satisfied until he had personally vanquished the entire continent. Alexander had a very big army and wanted it to be broken into two. At 32 years old, Alexander the Great died very young. Like his predecessor, he, too, carried a shield or aspis - similar to the hoplon, but due to the size of the sarissa one had to use both hands ; it was carried by a sling over the shoulder. You will undoubtedly find that this ocean is connected with the Hyrcanian Sea, for the great Stream of Ocean encircles the earth.