The contents is easily changed. These written documents are the permanent record of the operations and act as legal papers as well as future references for the company. He has emphasised that bureaucratic type of power is the ideal one. Members are remunerated for their work in bureaucracies. The word 'bureaucracy' literally means 'government with a small desk,' and it originated in France with reference to the little desks used by the king's officials as they went about the king's business.
Managers must depend on formal organizational rules in employee relations. Once instituted, bureaucracies are difficult to dislodge or change. When a situation arises that needs to be addressed, the person at the top puts together a team of specialists from various disciplines, who may or may not become a permanent team. They also allow an organization to be continuous and, thus, independent of any specific leadership. He felt that successful organizations, and therefore successful management, were linked to satisfied and motivated employees.
The factors representing characteristics of bureaucracy include its advantages, disadvantages and structure such as Decisions made by a small group, No individual freedom, Red-tapism also Faster process for the system, More organized. Unfortunately, Weber did not anticipate that each of the bureaucratic characteristics could also have a negative result. In his research he discovered three types of legitimate authority. Every worker has his or her own place in the chain, and everyone's work is overseen by someone on the next level up. For example, the Government organisations, we can observe separate offices looking after particular functions.
The new policy will go from the desk of the senior executive all the way down to the frontline employees. The accumulation of rules sometimes leads to the development of inconsistencies, and the procedures required to change any element of the status quo may become extraordinarily onerous as a result of the rule-driven character of bureaucracy. It breeds boredom and can affect productivity. According to beekeepers, bees, too, have a sophisticated system of communication that keeps their hives running smoothly. Organizational resources were used for the benefit of owners and managers rather than to meet organizational goals. The three main elements are:. And so, they remain at that position because they aren't good enough at that current job to get promoted any further.
This will cause the manager to misuse the authority and use the power for their personal benefit. This way, outcomes will be within the specified range. It allows for merit-based hiring and promotion. They can help to maintain equal treatment of all employees, and they can give a sense of unity or continuity to an organization, because even if individual members come and go, the laws and structure of the organization can remain the same. An extensive definition of the bureaucracy was formulated by the German sociologist Max Weber 1947.
They claimed that in time, it can bore members of the organization or agency. It is frequently difficult to feel committed to the organization. Overlapping scales which eventually become hard. Impersonality: The official staff members are personally free, observing only the impersonal duties of their offices. The classic work , originally published in 1947 from the doctoral dissertation of , dissected the vintage bureaucratic and concluded that it was frequently inconsistent with psychological and social realities. These disadvantages have to be overcome for any nation to run efficiently. The bureaucratization of the state, odd as it may initially seem, typically provided the basis for its democratization because it eliminated feudal, plutocratic, and patrimonial bases of administration.
Continuity Continuity is another key element of bureaucratic organization. They convey images of red tape, excessive rules and regulations, unimaginativeness, a lack of individual discretion, central control, and an absence of accountability. Popular emphasize that hierarchical organization strangles creative impulses and injects hyper-cautious modes of behaviour based on expectations of what superiors may desire. Because of the risk of organizational parochialism produced by limited and specific jurisdictional , the capacity to coordinate and control the multiplicity of units is essential. They let workers know what is expected of them.
I've only read their synopses, not the complete works. The bureaucratic form, according to Parkinson, has another attribute. So there is merit based selection rather than Nepotism. Post-bureaucracy, as I understand it, does away with the subordinate hierarchical layers. A rational approach to organisation calls for a system of maintaining rules to ensure twin requirements of uniformity and coordination of efforts by individual members in the organisation.
Many authors have questioned the validity of bureaucracy. Weber is credited for attempting to develop Bureaucratic model for the first time. A Formal Hierarchical Authority Weber's theories, developed at the turn of the 20th century, helped define the economic and political systems emerging from the highly concentrated authority of hereditary rulers and their supporters. Often a bureaucracy tends to have long term employees. A well-designed organization develops realistic job descriptions and evaluative practices to guide employees and encourage collaboration rather than empire building.